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Mules: Part 1

May 2018 by David Stang, PhD, Author,
Dr Stang (1946-2018), was a computer security expert and software developer with a PhD in Experimental Social Psychology. He published a dozen books and about 150 journal articles. David loved nature, horses and mules, computers, horses and mules, writing, and horses and mules - in that order. You can find more of his work at:

I wanted to write a nice article on mules, explaining them to those who know horses. There is plenty of conventional wisdom on the subject, but on closer examination, it all seems to be the same and distil down to not much. There is minimal science at all comparing donkeys, mules and horses, and many of the topics covered here deserve better than they have been given. 

The little science that has been done reveals some of the conventional wisdom is dangerously wrong. Direct observation can help fill in the gaps, so when there was no science I could find, I’ve resorted to telling you about my new love, my mule, named Freckles. If you find important omissions or errors, please write to the Editor and we can fix things.