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Mules: Part 2

June 2018 by David Stang, PhD, Author,
Dr Stang (1946-2018), was a computer security expert and software developer with a PhD in Experimental Social Psychology. He published a dozen books and about 150 journal articles. David loved nature, horses and mules, computers, horses and mules, writing, and horses and mules - in that order. You can find more of his work at:

Last month, I explained the origins of donkeys, mules and horses, and the unique differences in their intelligence, appearance, diet and disposition. In case you missed it, you can read it here. This month, I continue my discussion on the distinctive adaptations of today’s donkey, mule and horse.

My aim was to write a nice article on mules, explaining them to those who know horses. There is plenty of conventional wisdom on the subject, but on closer examination, it all seems to be the same and distil down to not much. There is very little science comparing donkeys, mules and horses, and many of the topics covered here deserve better than they have been given.